The art of psychotherapy, the sense, the intuitive sense, that a patient’s chief complaint, may in fact be a diversion away from a more touching issue, comes from years of practice deciphering whether there is congruence between content and affect. Then, even if one accurately detects avoidance, the question arises as to how best to talk about something that is not on the surface. Patients have taught me to say “hmmm….” in a way which suggests suspicion, without directly saying that it feels like something really important is not being talked about. There is Jerry, the fifty-two year old massively unhappily married man, who never talks about his marriage, but mentions at the end of every session how he is going to leave his wife. There is Susan, thirty-six, who appears deeply concerned about her sixteen-year old son, but she dominates our time with issues regarding her fourteen-year daughter who is doing very well. There is Larry, sixty, who consistently comes twenty minutes late to every appointment, but insists that traffic was “particularly bad today.” My sense of this form of denial is that these folks carry a tremendous amount of internal pain, which one day, hopefully soon, will come to the surface, so that we can process it together. It seems that the longer the pain is pushed away, the harder it will be to wrestle with it. The harder one tries to keep these demons in the closet, the more forcefully they will pour out, when the time comes. This time will usually be at a point where the person can no longer hold that door shut. Jerry’s wife will likely one day leave him. Susan’s son will collide into trouble at school or with the law, or both. Larry will ultimately come to understand that he is wasting his time in psychotherapy if he comes twenty minutes late. At these points, the flow of emotions will be massive. As with so many things in life, I can see the pain coming, but I don’t know when the patient will be able to feel it. It is like seeing cracks in the earth and knowing there will be an earthquake, but not knowing when. There is controversy in the field, whether a clinician should wait for the person to experience pain, such that the pain is a springboard to exploration, or whether the clinician should point to the avoidance before the patient has conscious awareness of his behavior. My solution is to decide this issue while I sit with a patient. As I said, this is the art of psychotherapy.